• ‘Ka mate…’

    ‘the ‘hospital undress’…’ described in: Philip Hoare. Spike Island: The Memory of a Military Hospital. Fourth Estate, 2010, p. 173

    ‘shell shock…’ first public use of the term ‘shell shock’ was in: Myers C.S. A Contribution to the Study of Shell Shock. Being an account of the cases of loss of memory, vision, smell and taste admitted to the Duchess of Westminster’s Hospital, Le Touquet. The Lancet, February 13th 1915: 316 – 320
    Also in: Kevin Brown Fighting fit: Health, Medicine and War in the twentieth century. The History Press, 2008 p. 61

    ‘every time someone said the word ‘bombs’…’ in 1917 Drs Hurst and Symns made a ‘kinematography record’ of D block patients, in: Hoare p. 227 (Patient hiding under the bed p. 231)
    Original film record on you-tube (second case shown):

    ‘my cardboard identity discs…’ idea inspired by from quote by Harvey Cushing (1869 – 1939), American Neurosurgeon working at the Western Front: ‘…the wretched tags, insecurely attached to the button of the wounded soldier’s uniform, are often lost or become rumpled and completely illegible. There are two poor aphasic chaps who were necessarily listed as ‘unknown’ since all ID marks had been lost in transit.’
    From museum display panel at Toc H museum, Poperinghe (author visit)

    ‘NYDN…’ on 7th June 1917 Medics were issued with instructions (‘General Routine Order No. 2384’), to use this phrase instead of term ‘shell shock’, in: Lyn Macdonald. The Roses of No Man’s Land, Michael Joseph Ltd.1980 (Chapter 16)

    ‘hysterical mutism…’ in: Yealland and Farquhar. Hysterical disorders of warfare, Macmillan London, 1918

    ‘the Germans were using these methods…’ description of ‘Ueberumpellung’ system, in: Notes from German and Austrian Medical journal, Disciplinary treatment of shell-shock. BMJ 1916, 2: 882
    Also in: Brown p. 64

    ‘put his lit cigarette…’ described in: Yealland and Farquhar (refers to previous treatment of ‘Case Ai’ before seeing Yealland)

    ‘We’ll be able to write this up for the Lancet …’ Hurst A.F. and Symns J.L.M., The Rapid cure of hysterical symptoms in soldiers. The Lancet, 3 August, 1918, pp. 139 – 41


    ‘Moko…’ in: H.G. Robley. Maori tattooing, Dover Publications Inc. 1896. Also in:

    ‘in 1837, Hokianga warriors…’ as recounted in: E.O. Wilson. On Human Nature, Harvard University Press, 1978 (Chapter 5; ‘Aggression’)

    ‘the beauty of this place could feel so overwhelming…’ descriptions and facts of the Coromandel Peninsula largely based on the author’s own experiences living there from 2006 -2007, but two books in particular were very useful: Marios Gavalas. Day walks of the Coromandel, Reed Books, 2001, and Michael King. The Coromandel, Tandem Press, 1993

    ‘the ‘Talisman’…’ in: King (Chapter 3 ‘Bonanza days’)

    ‘The Military Service Act…’

    ‘Get into Khaki…’

    ‘lottery of death…’

    ‘a Maori from the Arawa tribe…’ in: James Cowan. The Maoris in the Great War: A history of the New Zealand Native Contingent and Pioneer Battalion: Gallipoli, 1915, France and Flanders 1916-1918, Auckland, 1926 (Chapter 1)
    Available on-line:

    ‘Once there were muskets…’ in: Wilson (Chapter 5; ‘Aggression’)

    ‘was the way they honoured their treaties…’ in: Herbert Hoover, The memoirs of Herbert Hoover: 1874 – 1930, the Macmillan Company, New York, 1951, pp. 124 -130 (Chapter 10; ‘Living with the British’)

    ‘the Somme…twenty thousand dead…’ in: Norman Stone. World War One: a short history. (First published 2007), Penguin Books, 2008 p. 103

    ‘can it set to an arm?…’ from William Shakespeare. Henry IV Part 1, c. 1597 (Act 5, Scene 1)

    ‘once there was a demigod called Maui…’ in: Alistair Campbell. Maori Legends. Seven Seas publishing Pty Ltd, 1969
    Also in:

    ‘Grey Lady ghost…’ Grey Lady described in: Hoare, pp. 245 – 6


    ‘Cornish pump house…’

    ‘in a make-believe world of numbers…’

    ‘New Zealand tunnelling company…’

    ‘cartoon of a Maori soldier…’

    ‘Listen, listen, the sky above…’
    Waikato resistance to fighting also described in Cowan (Chapter 2)

    ‘Maori Pioneer Battalion…’ in: Cowan (Chapter 1)
    Also, an excellent summary on web-site:

    ‘sent to gaol like that Politician…’ refers to Peter Fraser, future Prime Minister of New Zealand, who was imprisoned for 12 months for seditious anti-war comments in December 1916.


    ‘Blue Moko…’ patterning in women described in: Robley (Chapter 3)

    ‘the All-black player Dave Gallaher…’ (1873 – 1917)

    ‘Let ’em all come…’ poster seen by author on visit to Memorial Museum Passchendaele 1917, Zonnebeke, Belgium

    ‘digging battalion…’

    ‘completely bamboozling the General in charge …’ Refers to General Cameron, in: Cowan (Chapter 1). Cowan also mentions another fieldwork, built near Rotorua in 1867 by a Maori war-party, and how it bears a remarkable resemblance to the trench systems cut by the Pioneer Battalion in Flanders in WW1.

    ‘treaty in 1840…’ refers to the Treaty of Waitangi.

    ‘In Treue fest…’ seen by author during a visit to Memorial Museum Passchendaele 1917, Zonnebeke, Belgium

    ‘nation would rise against nation…’ Gospel of Mark, Chapter 13

    ‘Be ye doers of the word…’ seen by author on visit to the chapel at Queen Victoria Country Park, Netley


    ‘They had finished digging it out in 1905…’ information in: Gavalas p. 49

    ‘HYDRO CAMP…’ ibid, pp. 34, 36

    ‘curious outcrop of rock, shaped like a giant egg…’ ibid, p. 38 (refers to Tauranikau)

    ‘Boer War chocolate tin…’ information and photographs of the chocolate tin on the National Army Museum website:

    ‘erupted spectacularly…’ refers to eruption of Mount Tongariro on 13th November 1896.

    ‘until a man from his logging crew got the sack…’ Logging was abandoned in 1888 when a sacked bushman – ‘Racehorse Jack’ – set fire to the surrounding forest. In: Gavalas p. 41

    ‘modern day ‘Thoreau’…’ refers to: Henry David Thoreau. Walden, 1854 (Subsequent quote from Walden)

    ‘Monteith’s…’ Monteith’s brewing company est. 1868

    ‘Get up!’ his voice had said…’ based on a phenomenon experienced by people in acute danger: John Geiger, The Third Man factor: surviving the impossible, Cannongate Books, 2009

    ‘Battle of Verdun…’ in: Stone, p. 95

    ‘creased ‘fore and aft’…’ contrarian way of wearing hats inspired by photograph of riflemen from NZ Rifle Brigade taken in 1917, in: Wayne Stack (illustrated by Mike Chappell). The New Zealand Expeditionary Force in World War I, Osprey Publishing, 2011 p. 45

    ‘a black triangle…’ sleeve flash for the 3rd Rifle Battalion, NZ Rifle Brigade, in: Stack, p. 32


    ‘The new man…’ character Professor S, loosely based on Dr Lewis Yealland (1884 -1954), and his electric shock treatments during WW1. Described in: Yealland and Farquhar
    Also: Linden et al. Shell shock at Queen Square: Lewis Yealland 100 years on. Brain 2013 June; 136 (Pt 6): 1976 – 1988

    ‘brown field medical card…’ seen by author during visit to: Army Medical Services Museum, Aldershot

    ‘Bellevue Spur…’ battle of, 12th October 1917, in Stack, p. 19

    ‘are you taking this down, Boswell?…‘ refers to: James Boswell (1740 – 1795), author of ‘The Life of Samuel Johnson’, published in 1791

    ‘the electrical laboratory…’ descriptions of the methods used, in: Yealland and Farquhar. Hunston’s treatment is loosely based on that of ‘Case Ai’ (a private, 24 years of age, suffering from mutism of 9 months duration)
    In Chapter 21 of her novel ‘Regeneration’ (Viking 1991), Pat Barker refers to the very same case. My aim has been to present Yealland’s work in a more positive light since it can be argued his methods, although brutal, were highly successful. Between 8/12/15 and 7/3/19, he treated 196 cases of ‘functional disorder’ at Queen Square. A 2013 retrospective survey of all the patient files concluded 88 were cured, 84 improved, and 24 remained in status quo. Yealland did not just use faradism, other treatments included: isolation, physical treatment (massage, baths, heat etc), exercise and persuasion. (In: Linden et al.)

    ‘this is to certify…’ based on a patient’s self-discharge letter after treatment with Yealland. In: Linden et al.

    ‘Craiglockhart Hospital…’ refers to the ‘talking therapy’ by Dr W. Rivers (1864 – 1922). In: Brown p. 63


    ‘Awapuni training camp…’ the sole location for the training of NZMC troops in WW1
    In: Lieutenant Colonel W.S. Austin, The Official history of the New Zealand Rifle Brigade, 1924. L.T. Watkins Ltd, Wellington (Appendix 6 ‘The Third Field Ambulance’)
    Letter detail from that of Private Norman Smith to his mother on 25 March 1917:

    ‘3rd Field Ambulance…’

    ‘The routine is as follows…’ In: A.D. Carbery. The New Zealand Medical Service in the Great War 1914 – 1918. Whitcomb & Tombs Ltd, Auckland 1924 (Chapter 10)
    Available on-line:

    ‘disordered action of the heart…’ E. Jones et al. Post Combat syndromes from the Boer war to the gulf war: a cluster analysis of their nature and attribution. BMJ, 2002, 324: 321

    ‘16,000 cases…’ Peter Howorth. The treatment of shell-shock: Cognitive therapy before its time. Psychiatric bulletin (2000), 24: 225 – 227

    ‘shell-shock W…’ from MacDonald (Roses of No Man’s land), pp. 217 – 218

    ‘these veteran instructors…’ the recommendation at the time by Colonel Begg (Assistant Director of Medical Services), was that MOs receive a course of instruction in NZ under experienced officers prior to embarkation. In: Carbury (Chapter 10)

    ‘Cable car…’

    ‘Hector observatory…’

    ‘Continental drift…’ idea first published in Germany by: Alfred Wegener. “Die Entstehung der Kontinente” in Dr. A Petermann’s Mitteilungen aus Justus Perthes’ geographischer Anstalt 58/1 (1912): pp. 185-195; 253-256; 305-309
    Later published as book: A. Wegener, The origins of Continents and Oceans, 1915 (published in English 1922)

    ‘there had been an earthquake near Waihi…’ refers to the Tauranga earthquake of Nov 22nd 1914. In:

    ‘Somes Island…’

    ‘camp at Narrow Neck…’ the Maori and Pacific Islander training camp, in Auckland.
    Also mentioned in: Cowan (Chapter 2)

    ‘their troop ship left a month ago…’refers to troopship Ulimaroa (HMNZT 74) which departed on 21/1/17 with the 13th Maori contingent, in:

    ‘Mokomokai…’ in Robley (Chapter 10)

    ‘dazzle camouflage…’ Behrens, Roy R. Setting the Stage for Deception. Perspective Distortion in World War I Camouflage. Aisthesis. Pratiche, linguaggi e saperi dell’estetico, [S.l.] Nov. 2016, v. 9, n. 2, p. 31-42
    Available on-line:

    Excellent television piece on dazzle camouflage by presenter James May, in:


    ‘on a clear April morning…’
    NZEF transport ‘Navua’ (HMNZT – His Majesty’s NZ troopship – 78) carrying 2,123 troops, left NZ 15/2/17 and arrived Devonport, Plymouth on 26/4/17

    ‘rub the dirt from the desert floor…’

    ‘Ewshot Camp…’ the camp in England where the NZMC trained, in: Also: Lt H.T.B. Drew, The War Effort of New Zealand. Whitcombe and Tombs Ltd, Auckland 1923 pp. 256 – 257
    Available on-line:

    ‘Witworth Park…’ based on Witley Park, Hampshire. The Egremont character is loosely based on Sir Whittaker Wright (1846 – 1904). In:


    ‘the coin catcher…’ seen during author visit to: Army Medical Services Museum, Aldershot

    ‘pickled thumbs of old-time miners…’ seen during author visit to Waihi Museum, New Zealand

    ‘Devon against New Zealand…’

    ‘Sandow developer…’

    ‘The Express and Echo…’

    ‘A Bugle call…’ Hoare p. 188

    ‘Are we downhearted…’ ibid p. 194

    ‘Hindu burial…’ ibid p. 192

    ‘O Supreme light…’ Hindu funeral prayer:

    ‘A group of convalescents…’ in: Hoare (description of front cover photograph)


    ‘There were a couple of people who had done it…’

    ‘lay a line of men on stretchers…’ from photograph in: Harvey Cushing, From a Surgeon’s journal 1915 – 1918. Boston, Little Brown and Company, 1936
    Available on-line:

    ‘Colonel Wright…’ refers to: Sir Almroth Wright (1861 – 1947) Details from: Leonard Colebrook, FRS. Almroth Wright: Provocative Doctor and Thinker. William Heinemann, 1954

    ‘Fencing school…’ in: Frank Diggins, The Life and times of Almroth Wright. Biomedical Scientist. March 2002 pp. 274 – 276, Also photograph in: Brown

    ‘famously stating…’ in: Diggins

    ‘he had injected himself first…’ in: Brown p. 22

    ‘Statistician’s opinion…’ refers to Karl Pearson (1857 – 1936). Pearson’s findings were eventually published in 1904: K. Pearson Report on certain enteric fever inoculation statistics, BMJ, 1904, 3:1243 – 46
    Available on-line:

    ‘The Times…’ 28th September 1914 (from Diggins)

    ‘Dr Fleming…’ Alexander Fleming (1881 – 1955)

    ‘Marquis of X…’ anecdote in: Colebrook p. 46

    ‘if they are ugly…’ quote from Wright, in Colebrook p 216

    ‘shot himself in the chest…’ in 1913 Edward Wright suffered a severe injury from a self-inflicted revolver wound to the chest. Wright was at his son’s bedside when he died. (In: Diggins)

    ‘I estimate there would be around 125,000…’ figures in: Colebrook, p. 42

    ‘the mud is full of faecal bacteria…’ in: Clinton et al. History of Infections associated with combat-related injuries. J Trauma. 2008; 64: S221-S231

    ‘the Lancet 1915…’ Fleming A, On the bacteriology of septic wounds. Lancet, 1915; 2: 638 – 643

    ‘has caused a rumpus…’ Sir William Cheyne (152 – 1932), President of the Royal College of Surgeons, advocated all wounds be packed with 2% creosol. Wright vigorously disagreed. In: Diggens
    Also in: Colebrook (Chapter 10, pp. 148 – 149) and Brown p. 57

    ‘the surgeon must believe…’ quote from Cheyne’s paper; The Treatment of War wounds. BMJ 1915-16, 3: 427 (In: Colebrook p. 149)

    ‘we’ve given you the facts…’ quote from Colebrook p. 46 (before a committee considering anti-typhoid inoculation at the time of the Boer War, the Chairman asked Wright if he had anything further to tell them. Wright replied: ‘No sir, I have given you the facts – I can’t give you the brains.’)

    ‘tell him you dirtied it…’ based on anecdote in: Colebrook p. 46


    ‘Field Ambulance…’ details in: Carbery (notes on military formations p. XIX)
    Available on line:

    ‘Hazebrouck…’ where the NZ Number 12 hospital was located May – Aug 1917. In: Carbery (Chapter 12)
    Also in Cushing (Chapter 4)

    ‘Mont des Cats…’ ibid

    ‘O’Neill…’ ibid

    ‘a girl’s boarding school…’ ibid

    ‘stepping carefully over stretcher cases…’ ibid

    ‘can you tell me the best magnet…’ quote from museum display at Toc H, Poperinghe (author visit)

    ‘bell tent…’ from sketch in: Cushing

    ‘Gray’s Anatomy…’ Henry Gray. Gray’s Anatomy, first published 1858

    ‘Supply Ration Depot…’ Peter Doyle. The British Soldier in the First World War, Shire Publications 2008, p. 30

    ‘Mercy Kamerad…’ a shout of surrender, used by German soldiers, in: Lorenzo Smith Lingo of No-Man’s land: A World War I slang dictionary (First published 1918). 2014 edition by British Library

    ‘The Red Badge of Courage…’ Stephen Crane. The Red Badge of Courage, first published 1895

    ‘the St. John of God Hospital…’ In: Vera Whittington. Gold and Typhoid: two fevers. A social History of Western Australia 1891-1900. University of Western Australia Press, 1988, pp. 20 – 21

    ‘Those Contraries…’ described in: John Plant. The Plains Indians Clowns, their Contraries and related phenomena. Vienna, 2010 pp. 19 – 21
    Also in: Thomas Berger, Little Big Man. (First published 1964, Paperback Edition 1999, The Harvill Press) pp. 161 – 62

    ‘Toc H…’ usually manned by Rev ‘Tubby’ Clayton. In: Paul Chapman. A Haven in Hell, 2000, Pen & Sword

    ‘Can you stick it…’ quote from museum display at Toc H, Poperinghe (author visit)


    ‘Hanging out front, like an English pub sign…’ The sign still hangs outside Talbot House, Poperinghe (author visit).
    Other details on Toc H based on author visits to Toc H. It is a remarkable place – almost a living museum – where guests are warmly welcomed and offered mugs of tea, much like the soldiers of old. There are also rooms available on the site for overnight stays (

    ‘British Army signalese…’ in: Doyle and Walker, p. 233

    ‘Pettifer…’ in: Chapman

    ‘a tatty map…’ refers to a map which still hangs near the front door of Toc H (author visit)

    ‘picture the salient as a bow…’ analogy described in museum display at Toc H

    ‘Friendship’s Corner…’ still on display in entrance hall of Toc H (author visit)

    ”Tubby’ Clayton…’ in: Chapman

    ‘Reverend Money…’ Padre Humphrey Money, Chaplain’s Force (NZ), for a short time in 1917, was in charge of Toc H. In: Chapman p. 29

    ‘inured to special propinquity…’ words taken from contemporary sign outside the Canadian room, Toc H (seen during author visit)

    ‘The Regimental Aid Posts…’ details on the medical positions in the Ypres sector from author visit to: Army Medical Services Museum, Aldershot

    ‘fourteen games at once…’ allegedly true story occurring at a Toc H chess tournament in late August 1917 about an unknown middle-aged gunner. From museum display at Toc H (author visit)


    ‘X day…’ and other details about the NZMC at Messines, in: Carbery (Chapters 12 and 13)

    ‘Underhill Farm ADS…’ ibid.
    Also in: Austin (Appendix 6. The Third field Ambulance p. 550)
    Site also visited by the author (now adjacent to a small war cemetery)

    ‘On the wall of the latrine…’ latrine details from Author visit to Memorial Museum Passchendaele 1917, Zonnebeke, Belgium

    ‘small box respirator…’ seen during author visit to: Army Medical Services Museum, Aldershot

    ‘For Sale, The Salient Estate…’ Wiper’s Times advert, see:

    ”Dayfield’ body shield…’ in Carbery (Chapter 13)

    ‘Spring Street…’ in: Carbery (Chapter 12)

    ‘mines had been laid all along the ridge…’ in: Alexander Turner. Messines 1917: the zenith of siege warfare. 2010, Osprey Publishing Ltd, p. 44

    ‘Julian Grenfell…’ (1888 – 1915)
    Poem lines from: Ed. John Silkin, The Penguin Book of First World War poetry, 1979, Penguin Books.

    ‘I met his father once…’ Hunston is referring to William Grenfell (1855 – 1945) and Ethel Grenfell (1867 – 1952), aka. Lord and Lady Desborough. Details from: Harry Mount. A Sporting life, The Spectator, 16 June, 2012

    ‘had the quality of a ventriloquist…’ as recorded in the Official History, in: Turner p. 53

    ‘a long white cloud…’ based on description of painting in: Peter Pederson. The Anzacs: Gallipoli to the Western Front, 2007. Viking (Penguin group) p. 232 (The painting is ‘Battle of Messines’ by Charles Wheeler, and depicts soldiers leaving the trenches after the mines have gone off. As described in Pederson: ‘The sky has been lit by the explosions, smoke from which hangs over the ridge…’)

    ‘the biggest man-made explosion in history…’ in: Turner p. 53 (Messines was the world’s largest man-made pre-nuclear explosion), also in: Pederson p. 231


    ‘creeping barrage…’ in: Turner p. 59, Pederson p. 232
    Also in: NZ history on-line:

    ‘at least it had been a trench once…’ based on witness descriptions in: Pederson, pp. 233 – 234

    ‘I chose a shell crater…’ Hunston’s experience at the Battle of Messines is loosely based on that of Captain Nelson, NZMC, who was in the assembly trenches in front of ‘Spring Street’ at Zero hour, and later, reached ‘Ulcer trench’ and dug in his RAP in a shell hole. Just before mid-day he went forward about 200 yards and set up a new RAP in a German pill-box. He was now over a mile from ‘Spring Street’. That day, no stretcher bearer parties were able to get to this post. The RAP was on the extreme right of the NZ sector and the most advanced. In: Carbery (Chapter 13)

    ‘Mark IV tanks…’ in: Turner p. 65

    ‘This mad bugger decides to charge them…’ based on Lance Corporal Samuel Frickleton’s (1891 – 1971) action at Messines with the 3rd Bn, NZ Rifle Bde. Nicknamed ‘Fricks’, he was wounded in the hip and gassed. He was later awarded the VC for this action.
    Also in: Pederson p. 233
    VC citation (London Gazette, No. 30215, 2 August 1917): ‘For most conspicuous bravery and determination when with attacking troops, which came under heavy fire and were checked. Although slightly wounded, Lance Corporal Frickleton dashed forward at the head of his section, rushed through a barrage and personally destroyed with bombs an enemy machine gun and crew, which were causing heavy casualties. He then attacked the second gun, killing the whole of the crew of twelve. By the destruction of these two guns he undoubtedly saved his own and other units from very severe casualties and his magnificent courage and gallantry ensured the capture of the objective. During the consolidation of the position he suffered a second severe wound. He set, throughout, a great example of heroism.’

    ‘I marked an M…’ in: Carbery (Chapter 12)
    Also seen by author on museum display at Toc H, Poperinghe

    ‘Blue line…’ Intermediate objectives achieved by 0500hrs. In: Turner p. 61

    ‘RATTE KELLAR…’ inspired by illustration of German Pill-box at Messines (by Peter Dennis). In: Turner pp. 76 – 77

    ‘white cotton case…’

    ‘A group of thirty or so other Maori Pioneers…’ in: Cowan (Chapter 12)

    ‘It was a German soldier on horseback…’ image inspired by front cover photograph of German Lancer 1917, in: Stone

    ‘Oosttaverne line…’ in: Turner p. 61

    ‘whiz-bang…’ shells and their nicknames, in: Peter Doyle and Julian Walker, Trench Talk: words of the First World War. Spellmount, 2012 p. 164
    Also in: Smith

    ‘a group of Australian bearer teams…’ in: Carbery (Chapter 13) The 3rd Australian Division were in the sector immediately to the right of the NZ Division, hence Hunston’s encounters with the Australians in the field. In: Turner p. 60


    ‘Wisques…’ in Carbery (Chapter 14)

    ‘Balmer Lawn Hotel…’ in: Stack p. 8
    Excellent history of the NZ nursing service:

    ‘the Colonel-in-charge of the hospital…’ in: Stack, p. 9

    ‘Third Ypres…’ in: Lyn Macdonald. Passchendaele, Penguin Books 1993, Chapter 10. (First published as ‘They Called it Passchendaele’ by Michael Joseph in 1978)
    Also in: Stone p. 139

    ‘General Routine Order No.2384…’ in: Macdonald (The Roses of No man’s land) p. 218


    ‘Seventeen of their battalion killed…’ in: Cowan (Chapter 12)

    ‘In July, they dug positions and laid down telephone cables…’ ibid (Chapter 13)

    ‘for the last fortnight, they’ve been repairing bridges…’ ibid

    ‘remind me of men who have only ever known nails…’ analogy in: Stone p. 106 (first expressed by C.S Forester in: The General, 1936, Michael Joseph)

    ‘Captain George Patton…’ based on George S. Patton Jr (1885 – 1945), later the famed General Patton of WW2. In September 1917 he was in France deciding whether or not to join the fledgling Tank service headed up by Colonel Eltinge. It is not known if Patton ever visited Toc H.
    In: Captain Dale Wilson. The American Expeditionary Forces Tank Corps in World War I: from creation to combat. Thesis 1988, Temple University, Philadelphia
    Available on-line:

    ‘the man I read about in The New York Times…’ story of the shoot-out in: the New York Times, May 23 1916 (Article entitled: ‘Cardenas’s family saw him die at Bay’ by Frank B. Esler)

    ‘when I got my first swordfish…’ quote in: Michael Keane. George S. Patton: Blood, Guts, and Prayer. 2012, Regenery Publishing

    ‘if a man has the guts…’ quote about fate, from: Karl Hollenbach. Patton: Many Lives, Many Battles (Venture Inward Magazine, Sept-Oct 1989)

    ‘over in Nome, Alaska…’ in:

    ‘Placed fifth at the 1912 Olympic pentathlon…’ Patton’s Olympic story, including the controversy of the number of holes in the target, in:

    ‘Two grooves were at the neck of the stock…’ in: Charles Lemons. US Army treasures: the Patton pistols. 2013. p. 4

    ‘Military Medals…’ Privates T. Brown and J. McAndrew (both of the Maori Pioneers ‘A’ company) were awarded Military Medals for their fine work in wiring at La Basseville on the night of 6th – 7th August, 1917. In: Cowan (Chapter 13)
    Example of medal seen during author visit to: Army Medical Services Museum, Aldershot

    ‘I had seen the haka…’ from: Dave Clements. The Story of the Haka (2nd Edition), 1998, The Haka Book Ltd

    ‘near the village of Woesten…’ in: Cowan (Chapter 13)

    ‘even God tore the temple curtain in two…’ Gospel of Mark, Chapter 15


    ‘Chateau Lafite-Rothschild, 1870…’ One of the most celebrated vintages. In:

    ‘General Routine Order 585…’

    ‘the town’s insane asylum…’ in: Cushing (Chapter 5), on the Poperinghe road leading into Ypres.

    ‘Dead End…’ in: Carbery (Chapter 15)

    ‘Devil’s corner…’ ibid

    ‘the 3rd Brigade – Mad Dog’s Brigade – was remaining in reserve…’ ibid

    ‘the thirteenth century square…’ described in: Cushing (Chapter 5), Pederson p. 250

    ‘Captain Hurley…’ Frank Hurley, Photographer (1885 – 1962)

    ‘In the Grip of the Polar pack-ice…’

    ‘felt the presence of a fourth man…’ in: Geiger (Chapter 2 ‘Shakleton’s Angel’)

    ‘at a place called Gravenstafel…’ in: Carbery (Chapter 15)

    ‘relieved by the British 49th Division…’ ibid

    ‘Hun Stuff…’ details from Museum display at Toc H, Poperinghe
    Descriptions of the effects of mustard gas in: Brown p. 58
    Also in: Smith

    ‘They’ll probably give him the Nobel Prize…’ Fritz Haber (1868 – 1934) received the Nobel Prize in 1919

    ‘English spoken. Australian understood…’ In: John Giles. Flanders then and now: The Ypres Salient and Passchendaele. Battle of Britain Prints International Ltd, 1987, p. 173


    ‘lightly flooded, flooded and heavily flooded…’
    For summary of NZ involvement in Passchendaele offensive:

    ‘each journey taking around four hours…’ in Pederson pp. 262, 265

    ‘two RAPs in that valley…’ in: Carbery (Chapter 15)

    ‘we’re headed there tonight, to relieve the British…’ ibid

    ‘The road to Wieltje was so rutted…’ ibid

    ‘The ADS was in an underground gallery…’ ibid

    ‘as the Maoris – perhaps twenty strong – performed the haka…’ as recalled by eyewitness Bert Stokes (NZ field artillery) in an audio recording:

    ‘Calgary Grange…’ in: Carbery (Chapter 15)

    ‘corduroy track…’ in: Giles, p. 175

    ‘Never mind about that, chum, just fuck off…’ described in Macdonald p. 208. Hunston’s encounter with the soldier is based on the experiences of Lieutenant P. King, East Lancashire Regiment. On the night of the 11th October 1917, King was relieved by Australians and the story of the handover is his own testimony. When he and the remnants of his company eventually made it back to Battalion HQ and reported in, the Colonel scathingly replied: ‘At last! The bloody cotton wool soldiers!’ and did not offer King a drink.

    ‘Slough of despond…’ John Bunyan. The Pilgrim’s Progress, 1678
    Passchendaele is described as the ‘slough of despond’ by historian John Keegan (in Pederson p. 267)

    ‘Jaegers…’ described in letter by Private Leonard Hart to his parents on 19 Oct 1917. In:

    ‘Lieutenant Worsley…’ loosely based on Leslie Wormald (1890 – 1965), Oxford Rowing Blue 1911, 1912, 1913, Olympic Gold Medallist in the Men’s eights 1912. Served in the Royal Field Artillery (awarded Military Cross1918)
    The meeting at Kronprinz RAP is fictional but I wanted to establish a rowing connection, consistent with Hunston’s rowing background and to highlight the Oarsmen who served and died in WWI.
    In: a two-part article by Victoria Fishburn (Leslie Wormald’s grand-daughter), entitled: ‘Stockholm 1912 – London 2012: An Olympic Centenary’

    ‘I rowed my three boat races with him…’ Hunston’s Oxford rowing pedigree is based on that of R. Carr (Blue 1896, 1897, 1898). Harcourt Gold (1876 – 1952) was an Oxford Blue in 1896, 1897, 1898, 1899 and a successful coach thereafter. In WWI he served in the Royal Flying Corps. In: G. C. Drinkwater. ‘The Boat Race’, Blackie and Son Ltd, 1939

    ‘Spy cartoon of Gold…’ picture in: Fishburn article (first part)

    ‘Red Baron…’ refers to Captain Manfred von Richtofen (1892 – 1918). German fighter pilot, credited with 80 kills. In: Pederson p.219


    ‘Zero hour…’ in: Carbery (Chapter 15)

    ‘barrage fell short…’ described in: Private Hart’s letter

    ‘our RAP contained more than fifty men…’ Carbery (Chapter 15). The Kronprinz RAP was manned by: Captain Benham NZMC (RMO to NZ Rifle Brigade) and Lt. Baxter NZMC

    ‘hit in the neck…’ ibid

    ‘in a cemetery at Wallemollen…’ ibid

    ‘machine guns onto the top of the pillboxes…’ described in: Private Hart’s letter

    ‘We’re to renew the attack at 3pm…’

    ‘enfilading fire…’ ibid, definition also in: Smith

    ‘He dragged his burden…’ partly based on Corporal Rowland Lording’s account of his injury at the Battle of Fromelles, July 1916 (fighting with the ANZACs). In: Pederson p. 137 (in the account he describes a fellow soldier – ‘Stan’ – rolling him up in a groundsheet and dragging him back to the trench)

    ‘I probed back his lung…’ ibid (Lording lost 6 ribs and his right arm and underwent many further operations before eventually dying in a mental hospital in 1944)

    ‘Fit and highly-trained men didn’t die easily…’ as remarked by Sidney Stanfield (Wellington Infantry Battalion), in:
    At the end of the war he was still nearly two years under the age limit for service.

    ‘the birds were migrating…’ in: Cushing (Chapter 5)

    ‘calling out to our bearers…’ described in: Private Hart’s letter
    The unofficial truce, in which the German snipers left the stretcher bearers alone, is also described in: Pederson p. 265

    ‘the barbed wire…’ described in Private Hart’s letter (‘dozens got hung up in the wire’)


    ‘Bandagehem…’ in: Cushing (Chapter 5). All the NYDN cases were taken to that CCS.

    ‘a town called Le Quesnoy…’ in: Stack p. 21 Also in:

    ‘842 killed…’

    ‘The Canadians relieved us…’ ibid

    ‘16,000 of our boys…’ the numbers range from source to source, but the most thorough analysis of NZ casualties is on the following site:
    This figure later rose to over 18,000 (since people died of their wounds after the Armistice). The numbers serving was approx. 100,000 (approx. 20% of the male population of NZ). Therefore almost 4% of the male population of NZ died as a consequence of WW1.

    ‘fought at Armageddon…’ refers to the Battle of Megiddo 19 – 26th September 1918 (in Pederson pp. 309 – 311)
    The NZ Mounted Rifles Brigade took part. In:

    ‘But of that day…’ Gospel of Mark, Chapter 13

    ‘blind hopes…’ in: Wilson (Chapter 9, ‘Hope’)

    ‘about Maui dying…’ in: Campbell. Also in:

    ‘NZ General Hospital down at Brockenhurst…’ in: Stack p. 8

    ‘Citizens are earnestly requested…’

    ‘a Maori Contingent…’


    ‘the rumour was that Lloyd George…’ In: Stone p.189 (in a cabinet meeting during the last days of the war he had said: ‘if peace were made now, in twenty years’ time the Germans would say what Carthage had said about the First Punic War, namely that they had made this mistake and that mistake, and by better preparation and organization they would be able to bring about victory next time.’ )

    ‘A short scarlet cape…’ in: Stack p. 31

    ‘a head injury hospital at Mendinghem…’ from museum display at Toc H, Poperinghe.
    Refers to the No.46 hospital where Harvey Cushing carried out neurosurgery on head wounds. In: Cushing (Chapter 5)
    On Saturday Oct 13th 1917 his operating list included a soldier from the 3rd NZ Rifle Brigade with a ‘frontal gutter wound…had gone 1000 yards when wounded…’

    ‘Edgar Allan Poe…’ Edgar Allan Poe (1809 – 1849). Famous for writing stories of ghosts and the supernatural

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