‘the hospital undress…’ described in: Philip Hoare. Spike Island: The Memory of a Military Hospital. Fourth Estate, 2010, p. 173

    ‘the corridor of C-block…’ – ibid, p. 113

    ‘On the lid…’ information and photographs of the Queen Victoria Chocolate tin on the National Army Museum website


    ‘Java man…’ thought at one time to be a possible ‘missing link’, in: Bjorn Kurten Our Earliest Ancestors, Columbia University Press, 1993 p. 93

    ‘until the day when…’ Alexandre Dumas. The Count of Monte Cristo (First published 1844-5), Vintage, 2009, p. 1462

    ‘take in last year’s Wisden…’ John Wisden. Wisden Cricketers’ Almanack, 1877

    ‘in a speech to the German Chemical Society…’ the anecdote was told by Kekule in 1890. In: A. Kekule. ‘Benzolfest: Rede’ Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 1890, 23: 1302- 11
    See also:

    ‘Reverend George Rowe…’ In: Vera Whittington. Gold and Typhoid: two fevers. A social History of Western Australia 1891-1900. University of Western Australia Press, 1988, pp. 17-18


    ‘the likes of me…’ quote from a righteous patient in that era, in: Lavinia Mitton. The Victorian Hospital, Shire Publications, 2008, p. 10

    ‘A copy of the British Medical Journal…’ A. Bowlby. The War in South Africa, BMJ, 1900, 1610 -12

    ‘it was accurate enough…’ refers to article by: Burdett-Coutts, Our Wars and our wounded (dated Cape Town May 29th), letter to The Times, 27th June 1900

    ‘we do not consider…’ In: Parliamentary Papers Cd 453 and Cd 454. ‘The Royal Commission appointed to consider and report upon the care and the treatment of the sick and wounded during the South African campaign’, London: HMSO, 1901

    ‘Polished black boots…’ from picture plate in: G. C. Drinkwater. ‘The Boat Race’, Blackie and Son Ltd, 1939 It is a portrait of William Henry Grenfell entitled ‘Taplow Court’ by Leslie Ward – pseudonym ‘Spy’ (published in Vanity Fair, Dec 20th 1890)

    ‘Witworth park…’ based on Witley Park, Hampshire from

    ‘Cook’s holograph journal…’ information relating to Cook’s journal from: Cook’s Endeavour Journal: the inside story. National Library of Australia, 2008


    ‘could I prevail on you to…?’ and other matters of etiquette from: ‘Etiquette for Gentlemen’, Copper Beech Publishing, 1995

    ‘told enough white lies…’ recollected in: Lady Violet Bonham Carter. ‘Margot Oxford: a personal impression.’ The Listener, 11 June, 1953

    ‘he had an athletic pedigree…’ facts about William Grenfell from: Harry Mount. ‘A Sporting life’, The Spectator, 16 June, 2012

    ‘a form of all out fighting…’ –

    ‘when a journalist from the Illustrated London News…’ incident described in: Janet B. Pascal. Arthur Conan Doyle: beyond Baker Street, OUP, 2000 p. 7

    ‘Said the Army had made a big error…’ from: Vincent J Cirillo. Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930): Physician during the typhoid epidemic in the Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902), Journal of Medical Biography, 2013, 22 (1): 2 – 8

    ‘Underwater room…’ perhaps the best description with accompanying photographs is the following article on

    ‘two fifths of a length…’ – Drinkwater, p. 90


    ‘one of the Mappin’s ‘campaign’ watches…’ –

    ‘and a flash of green glowed…’ rare atmospheric phenomenon sometimes seen on sunset over water, described in:

    ‘Moondyne Joe…’ and other facts about the gaol including the fortified cell, from: Cyril Ayris. Fremantle Prison – a brief history, Freelance, 1995

    ‘three stripes in linear formation…’ from: Robert Lawlor. ‘Voices of the First Day: awakening in the Aboriginal dreamtime’, Inner Traditions International Ltd, 1991, pp. 198 – 99

    ‘catgut…’ –

    ‘it locks up white fellas in compartments of time…’ ibid, p. 241


    ‘Lord Wolseley…’ – Colonel Charles H. Melville. Military Hygiene and Sanitation London, Edward Arnold, 1912 (Chapter 2)

    ‘black week…’ – Thomas Pakenham, The Boer War, (First published 1979), Abacus, 1992, p. 246

    ‘a large group of doctors from St. Mary’s Hospital…’ from: Oscar Craig and Alasdair Fraser. ‘Doctors at War’, The Memoir Club, 2007, pp. 26 – 7, 51 – 52

    ‘twenty five officers…’ – ibid, p. 52

    ‘Maidstone outbreak of 97…’ Stanwell-Smith R. The Maidstone typhoid outbreak of 1897: an important centenary. Euro Surveill. 1997, 1(29): 1027 Available on-line at

    ‘water rationing…’ – and other facts about services in Bloemfontein from: Pakenham, p. 382

    ‘Field hospital of the twelfth brigade…’ described in detail on South African Military History website:

    ‘wasn’t very responsive to…’ – quoted in: Pakenham, p. 383

    ‘a hut filled with hundreds of tins…’ – inspired by photograph in: Blair and Ticehurst, Royal Army Medical Corps 1898-1998: Reflections of one hundred years of service, RAMC, 1997 p. 11

    ‘Sixty two truckloads on 17th April…’ –

    ‘the Raadzaal…’ – photographs in: Blair and Ticehurst, pp. 8 – 9

    ‘Number 3 ambulance train…’ one of the two ambulance trains in South Africa (No. 2 and No. 3) evacuating to the Cape (the others evacuated to Durban in Natal). In: Craig and Fraser, p. 60

    ‘Kipling was on board…’ –
    Also inspired by extract from his later poem: ‘The Parting of the columns’ (1903):
    ‘Our blood as truly mixed with yours – all down the Red Cross train.
    We’ve bit the same thermometer in Bloeming-typhoidtein.
    We’ve ‘ad the same old temp’rature – the same relapses too.
    The same old saw-backed fever chart. Good-bye – good luck to you!’

    ‘put onto a hospital ship…’ – hospital ships used in the Boer War listed on website:


    ‘I heard they sung him…’ – Cyril Havecker, Understanding Aboriginal Culture, Cosmos 1987, pp. 35 – 36, Lawlor, pp. 355 – 357

    ‘build makeshift chapels in the bush…’ – Whittington, p. 88

    ‘cycle for miles…’ – ibid, pp. 55 – 56

    ‘to hold their own in fist fights…’ – Gavin Casey and Ted Mayman, The Mile that Midas touched. (First published 1964), revised edition published in Seal Books 1968, p. 72

    ‘sisters of the people…’ – Whittington, pp. 12 – 20

    ‘a coolamon they call it…’ –

    ‘they say a giant snake died there…’ –

    ‘every gift is repaid in kind…’ – Lawlor, p. 252

    ‘they have no words for…’ – ibid, p. 237

    ‘an anthropological test…’ ibid, pp. 252, 320 (these were actual anthropological experiments carried out in the 1950s on Aboriginals)


    ‘the hospital at Netley…’ – facts from: Hoare, p. 113

    ‘disordered action of the heart…’ – E. Jones et al. Post Combat syndromes from the Boer war to the gulf war: a cluster analysis of their nature and attribution. BMJ, 2002, 324: 321

    ‘Convicts awaiting transportation…’ – ibid, p. 17

    ‘Queen Victoria herself, was due to visit…’ – ibid, p. 173

    ‘Queen’s South Africa medals…’ – seen by author during visit to: Army Medical Services Museum, Aldershot

    ‘battle of Spion Kop…’ – Pakenham, (Chapter 25)

    ‘staggering for two or three steps…’ – based on eyewitness description by soldier from Second Middlesex Regiment in: Editor: Ian Knight Marching to the drums: eyewitness accounts of war from the Kabul massacre to the siege of Mafikeng. (First published 1999) 2015 edition by Frontline books. p. 280

    ‘come on Die Hards…’ from: Charles Lethbridge Kingsford The story of the Duke of Cambridge’s Own (Middlesex Regiment). Country Life, 1916, Chapter 13 (a rallying cry of Second Lieutenant Bicknell at Spion Kop) Available on-line:

    ‘corpses lay here and there…’ – by a young Winston Churchill, a reporter at Spion Kop, in:

    ‘the coin catcher…’ – seen during author visit to: Army Medical Services Museum, Aldershot

    ‘Be ye doers of the word…’ – inscription on pulpit seen during author visit to: Royal Victoria Country Park, Netley

    ‘Non-violence…’ – inspired by words of Gandhi from 1922: ‘Non-violence is the first article of my faith. It is also the last article of my creed.’ From: Oxford dictionary of thematic quotations, OUP, 2000
    Gandhi was a stretcher bearer at Spion Kop: Emanoel Lee. To the bitter end: a photographic history of the Boer War 1899-1902. Butler & Tanner Ltd, 1985 pp.70-71

    ‘a bullet from a Mauser…’ – ballistics facts from: George Makins FRCS, Surgical experiences in South Africa, 1899-1900, being mainly a clinical study of the nature and effects of injuries produced by bullets of small calibre. The Joint committee of Henry Frowde and Hodder & Stoughton, 1901 Available on line:

    ‘the operation tent had its flaps wide open…’ – description from: Frederick Treves, FRCS. The tale of a Field Hospital, Cassell and Company, 1900
    Available on-line:
    (Treves was also the surgeon who had earlier befriended the ‘Elephant Man’ Joseph Merrick, 1862 – 1890)

    ‘Longmore’s bullet retractors…’ – seen during author visit to: Army Medical Services Museum, Aldershot

    ‘and not a dum dum or one tipped with poison…’ – Lee. p.66

    ‘No fear, Boers, no fear…’ – inspired by Boer War graffiti from photograph in: Pakenham (actually reads: ‘don’t Forget Majuba Boys’ with the British response, ‘NO FEAR, BOOJERS, NO FEAR’)

    ‘that month the typhoid incidence…’ – monthly bar charts on website:

    ‘Accidentally drowned in Southampton water…’ – seen by author on gravestone in Military cemetery, Royal Victoria Country Park, Netley

    ‘It was Christmas Day…’ – arrival dates at Cape Town of Second Middlesex (Christmas Day) and First Australian Horse (first contingent on 13th December):


    ‘the St John of God…’ – Whittington, pp. 20 – 21

    ‘how about you Engels…’ – refers to: Karl Marx and Frederick Engels. The Communist Manifesto, 1848

    ‘you saw the hospital ghost…’ Grey Lady in: Hoare, pp. 245 – 6.
    Grey Lady ghosts also vividly described on Queen Alexandra’s Royal Army Nursing Corps (QARANC) website:

    ‘skull alley…’ – Hoare, pp. 6 – 7

    ‘greater cranial capacity…’ – ideas from: Stephen Jay Gould. The Mis-measure of man, W.W. Norton & Co, 1981 (Chapter 3: ‘Measuring Heads’)

    ‘the Australian black…’ – sentence quoted from: Newnes Modern Pictorial Atlas, George Newnes Ltd, 1939 p. 123 (in section entitled: ‘Races of the World’)

    ‘some of the Neanderthal skull finds…’ – Kurten, pp. 112 – 13

    ‘Memento mori…’ – seen by author on gravestone in Military cemetery, Royal Victoria Country Park, Netley

    ‘and when they do, they take off their headgear…’ – inspired by observation on Combat Fatigue in: Major Dick Winters, Beyond Band of Brothers, Ebury Press, 2011 p. 174
    ‘When you see a man break, he usually slams down his helmet and messes up his hair. I don’t know if it’s conscious or unconscious, but a soldier goes to his head and massages his head, shakes it, and then he’s gone. You can talk to him all you want, but he can’t hear you.’

    ‘had his head in a book…’ – HG Wells, The War of the Worlds, William Heinemann, 1898

    ‘mephan pipes…’ – the actual laying and jointing of the pipes did not start until March 1901. The pipeline was officially opened on 24th January 1903. Casey and Mayman p. 120

    ‘Rock hotel…’ – ibid p. 191


    ‘some wooden crates…’ Kevin Brown. Fighting fit: Health, Medicine and War in the twentieth century. The History Press, 2008 p. 23

    ‘there was a lot of mistrust…’ – ibid p. 22

    ‘still holds a grudge…’, – ibid p. 23, also in: Craig and Fraser pp.17 -18

    ‘initial results appear to justify…’ – A.E Wright and W.B Leishman, Results which have been obtained by anti-typhoid inoculations, BMJ, 1900, 1: 122 – 4

    ‘then Pearson goes and rubbishes it…’ – Pearson’s findings were eventually published in 1904: K. Pearson Report on certain enteric fever inoculation statistics, BMJ, 1904, 3:1243 – 46 Available on-line:

    ‘the Lancet this time…’ A.E. Wright. Notes from India, The Lancet, 1899, 1: 929 – 34, The Lancet, 1899, 2: 182

    ‘lies, damned lies and statistics…’ – Disraeli quote from: Oxford Dictionary of thematic quotations. OUP, 2000

    ‘I tested the damn thing on myself for God’s sake…’ – Brown, p. 22

    ‘Almost right…’ – Hoare, p. 170, Brown, p. 21

    ‘Typhoid fever deaths…’ – table of statistics from: Whittington, p. 409


    ‘they condense water…’ – Whittington, p. 15, Casey and Mayman, pp. 74 – 75

    ‘four gallons a day for married men…’ – ibid, p.75

    ‘Bayley and Ford…’ – ibid p.120

    ‘the Manse on Dugan Street…’ – Whittington, p. 202

    ‘An Afghan…’ – ibid p. 386

    ‘The Palace Hotel…’ – Casey and Mayman, pp. 72 – 3

    ‘Formally opened on…’ – Whittington, p.216

    ‘the Kalgoorlie Miner…’ – Casey and Mayman, p. 69

    ‘Henry Morris’s…’ – Henry C Morris, The History of Colonization from the earliest times to the present day, the Macmillan Company, 1900

    ‘see the verandas…’ – based on description of the St. John of God hospital, in: Whittington, p. 217

    ‘Thresh current steam disinfector…’ – Mitton, p. 17


    ‘Violet Cook…’ – Casey and Mayman, p. 137

    ‘Near Slingersfontein…’ – Dudley’s Boer War soldiering is based on the action seen by Lieutenant Dowling of the 1st Australian Horse.

    ‘showed them how to scout, take cover…’ – from description by Corporal Abbott of Australian Horse squadron in: Peter Burness, The boys in green – a centenary history of the first Australian Horse and the Light horse units of Harden and Murrumburrah, New South Wales, Clarion Editions, 1997, (Chapter 2) Chapter available on-line:

    ‘a newspaper clipping…’ – extract from: A.B. Paterson, The finding of Kilpatrick. The Sydney Mail, 24th February 1900

    ‘phenacetin…’ – seen on fever chart during author visit to: Army Medical Services Museum, Aldershot

    ‘careful sanitation…’ – Pakenham, p. 382

    ‘The label was written in that same Spencerian script…’ – article on Coca Cola giving history of the drink:
    Advertisements at the time involved the topic of fever: ‘A bottle of Clement’s tonic would revive even a severe case of typhoid’. In: Whittington, p. 11

    ‘don’t take away his hope…’ – Inspired by quote from Sir William Osler, Professor at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine from 1893 – 1905
    ‘What is your duty of telling a patient that he is probably the subject of an incurable disease? …One thing is certain; it is not for you to don the black cap, and, assuming the judicial function, take hope from any patient – hope that comes to all.’
    From: The quotable Osler. Revised Paperback Edition, Edited by Silverman, Murray and Bryan, American College of Physicians, Philadelphia, 2008

    ‘A McCubbin…’ – Frederick McCubbin, Down on his luck (1889) Collection: the Art Gallery of Western Australia

    ‘Mister Cook…’ – Casey and Mayman, pp. 72 – 3

    ‘which we miners call telly…’ – Casey and Mayman, p. 126

    ‘bagoshite…’ – Sam Kean, The Disappearing Spoon, Doubleday 2011, p. 226


    ‘Egremont head frame…’ – based on the Ivanhoe Head frame, now part of the WA Museum, Kalgoorlie-Boulder (visited by author)

    ‘The British Arms…’ – built in 1899, it operated until 1924. Edith McKay, the publican’s 37 year old wife, fell down the staircase of the hotel on 17th December 1913 and died three days later in hospital. The building is said to be still haunted by her ghost. Now part of the WA Museum, Kalgoorlie-Boulder (visited by author)

    ‘into a separate state…’ – story of proposed state of ‘Auralia’ in: Casey and Mayman, pp. 105 – 113

    ‘at the Egremont Stope…’ – ibid, p. 135

    ‘at the Government Hospital…’ – Whittington, pp. 202, 207

    ‘Burgerwacht…’ – tattoo based on an armband seen during author visit to: Army Medical Services Museum, Aldershot

    ‘a real tiger cat he was…’ to ‘…assvogels’ Carlsson’s tale is based on the report of an Australian War correspondent called Hales, on the shooting of Lieutenant Dowling (1st Australian Horse). Hales interviewed Boers involved in the ambush of 16th January 1900, and heard about the astonishing fight Dowling had made.
    First published in: The Singleton Argus, Sat Dec1st 1900
    Account available on-line:

    ‘Once set on their course…’ – Havecker, p. 36


    ‘Misterr Herbert Hoover…’ – future U.S. president Herbert Hoover, worked as a mining engineer in Kalgoorlie in 1898 and then again in 1901
    In: Herbert Hoover, The memoirs of Herbert Hoover: 1874 – 1930, the Macmillan Company, New York, 1951
    Also in: Casey and Mayman, p. 93

    ‘they’re fresh in from the coast…’ – ibid, p. 134

    ‘Champagne Charlies…’ – ibid, p. 133

    ‘your ruling elite…’ – based on Hoover’s own reflections in: Hoover, pp. 124 -130 (Chapter entitled: ‘Living with the British’)

    ‘I majored in…’ – paraphrased from remark by Mrs Lou Hoover about her husband. In: Paul F. Boller, Jr Presidential wives – an anecdotal history’’, 1988, 2nd Edition, OUP, p. 270

    ‘Let me tell you a story about that fellow…’ – Father Long was involved in the sacred nugget episode described. In: Casey and Mayman, pp. 194 -196
    Sir John Kirwan, My Life’s Adventure. Eyre & Spottiswoode, London, 1936 (Chapter 4). Available on-line from Sydney University, 2000:

    ‘this side up with care…’ – ibid (Chapter 6) originally applied to coffins.

    ‘Jesus preferred the company…’ – ideas on Rennie’s sermon from: Garry Wills, What Jesus Meant, Penguin books, 2006

    ‘It was probably silicosis…’ – Casey and Mayman, p. 153

    ‘We wish no harm…’ – based on words of Burnum Burnum (1936-97). In January 1988, the year of Australia’s bicentenary, he planted an Aboriginal flag on the white cliffs of Dover and ‘claimed’ England for the Aboriginal people.
    Full quote: ‘We wish no harm to England’s native people. We are here to bring you good manners, refinement and an opportunity to make a ‘Koompartoo’, a fresh start.’
    The Oxford Dictionary of thematic quotations, OUP 2000

    ‘Chilkoot trail…’ –

    ‘my uncle William…’ – character based on William Judge (1850 – 1899),

    ‘some crazy kid river pilot…’ – refers to: Jack London (1876 – 1916) ibid

    ‘the Dexter saloon…’ –


    ‘new man for the Egremont…’ – based on a newspaper quote from The Bulletin in 1902 about a mine manager called Tom Hewitson, from: Casey and Mayman, p. 93

    ‘I was the mine manager at ‘the Alluvial’…’ – Dudley’s story about Egremont and stock Market manipulation, based on Whitaker Wright and the London and Globe Corporation, ibid, p. 90 – 93

    ‘knows no more of mining than…’ – quote originally referring to a new Commissioner for Crown Lands, unfamiliar with the mining industry (‘The Coolgardie Miner’ newspaper circa 1890). In: Casey and Mayman, p. 96

    ‘the Federation flag…’ –

    ‘the Bon Secour order of nuns…’ – Whittington, p. 21

    ‘her measly two pint daily water ration…’ – Casey and Mayman, p. 71

    ‘to my shock I recognised him…’ – Father Long actually died of typhoid fever in Perth in 1899: Also in: Kirwan (Chapter 4)

    ‘Causes of death…’ – from Kalgoorlie Hospital admission book, in: Whittington, p. 208


    ‘it’s an old lease north of Coolgardie…’ – Casey and Mayman, pp. 67, 85, Kirwan, (Chapter 4)

    ‘Faahan’s…’ – Whittington, pp. 41 – 42

    ‘Bayley’s Luck…’ – Gerald Walsh, 1899 (Collection: Western Australian Museum). For many years it hung in a goldfield’s pub Described (

    ‘out on the wastes of the Never Never…’ – Barcroft Boake, Where the dead men lie and other poems, Angus and Robertson, 1897

    ‘Waltzing Matilda…’ – regarding the origins of the folk-song the following government website was the most informative:
    An ABC radio programme: was also useful.

    ‘used to row a double scull with the bugger…’ – Banjo Paterson was a member of Sydney Rowing Club circa.1884 (

    ‘alongside Harry Searle…’ – Scott Bennett, The Clarence Comet: the career of Henry Searle 1866 – 99. Sydney University Press, 1974

    ‘like seeing a Gladiators amongst degenerate Romans…’ – and ‘one more rib…’ quotes from article by Banjo Paterson referring to Searle, in: Sydney Morning Herald, 11 February 1939


    ‘look away, look away…’ – Daniel Decatur Emmett, Dixie, 1859

    ‘the Russian Princess…’ – Casey and Mayman, p. 138

    ‘the brothels…’ – ibid, p. 138
    Details of interior of prostitute’s tent, including the certificate about venereal disease, in: Perkins, Prestage, Sharp, & Lovejoy (eds.) Sex Work and Sex Workers in Australia. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney, 1994 pp. 27-52 (Chapter entitled: The history of female prostitution in Australia, by Raelene Frances)
    Available on-line:

    ‘Langer line…’ – named after Austrian Anatomist, Karl Langer (1819 – 1897)

    ‘chromic catgut…’ – this was sterile and would have lessened the chances of infection. (

    ‘Rennie had caught typhoid…’ – Inspired by story of Reverend Collick, who caught typhoid fever in Coolgardie in 1895 and survived, in: Whittington, pp. 72, 80

    ‘an oil painting I had once seen…’ – Luke Fildes, The Doctor, 1887 Collection: The Tate Britain, London (


    ‘he was a British captain…’ – Cowdray’s ‘bulala’ nickname and Matabeleland exploits based those of Alfred ‘bulala’ Taylor, who operated a ‘no prisoners’ policy in the latter part of the Boer War:
    Lieut George Witton, Scapegoats of the Empire: the true story of Breaker Morant’s Bushveldt Carbineers, D.W. Paterson Company, Melbourne, 1907 (Chapter 7)
    Available on-line:

    ‘the Boers sent word…’ – ibid (Chapter12)

    ‘No Asiatics, Chinese or Aboriginals…’ – sign outside the unfilled Kalgoorlie swimming baths, in: Whittington, p. 386

    ‘the Duke of Cambridge’s Own…’ – In: Kingsford


    ‘the current world champion…’ –

    ‘convalescent home on Cottesloe beach…’ – Whittington, pp. 384-5

    ‘Rev W.R…’ – the author’s great grandfather, Reverend W.R. Poole (1872 -1940), Methodist Minister on the Western Australian goldfields,1896 – 1903 (including Kalgoorlie from 1902-03), thereafter in Fiji.
    In: The cyclopedia of Fiji, 1907, p.309

    ‘in the midst of life we are in death…’ – seen by author on gravestone in Military cemetery, The Royal Victoria Country Park, Netley

    ‘Maxwell’s theory…’ – J. Clark Maxwell, A Dynamical theory of the Electromagnetic field. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 1865, 155: 459-512
    Best understood for the non-mathematical on the following BBC documentary:

    ‘a textbook on the brain…’ – findings in a paper by: Richard Caton, The electric currents of the brain, BMJ, 1875, ii: 278


    ‘because I bloody painted it…’ – one of the theories about the sacred nugget. In: Casey and Mayman, p. 195

    ‘in ’95 they almost lynched a man…’ – Kirwan, (Chapter 4)

    ‘Downfall of the Egremont…’ – this happened to Whittaker Wright’s London and Globe Corporation on 28th Dec 1900, the last day of trading that year.
    Covered in the press: Pall Mall Gazette 31 Dec 1900 p. 1 (headline: ‘A House of Cards’).
    The Times 31 Dec 1900 p. 15 (the business column ‘The Money Market’, said the following: ‘the last settlement of the century has certainly terminated in a deplorable manner.’)
    In: Raymond E. Dumett (Ed) Mining tycoons in the age of empire, 1870-1945, Ashgate, 2009, p. 143

    ‘Man called Govette…’ – Casey and Mayman, p. 94, Hoover pp. 78 – 79

    ‘a contrary…’ – described in: John Plant The Plains Indians Clowns, their Contraries and related phenomena. Vienna, 2010 pp. 19 – 21

    Also in: Thomas Berger, Little Big Man. (First published 1964), Paperback Edition 1999, The Harvill Press, pp. 161 – 62


    ‘we want the Esperance railway…’ – Casey and Mayman, p. 122

    ‘Cobb and Co…’ –

    ‘another full water container…’ – Boer canteen seen during author visit to: Army Medical Services Museum, Aldershot

    ‘I’ll cable you at Dundas…’ – goldfields map from: Whittington, p. 320


    ‘when Richardson did it…’ – Arthur Richardson (1872 – 1939) cycled from Coolgardie to Adelaide in 1896. (

    ‘Plucky fellow called Snell…’ – Coolgardie Miner, 31 May 1897

    ‘This ration…’ – seen on ‘iron rations’ during author visit to: Army Medical Services Museum, Aldershot

    ‘Barla-juinya…’ – Jack Edmunds, Across the Nullarbor with panorama, Panorama Books, 1986

    ‘gnamma holes…’ – Kirwan, (Chapter 4), Whittington pp. 11 – 13, 221 (includes the story about the Aboriginal tied to a tree and fed salted beef until he revealed the location)


    ‘Gayandi…’ – Havecker, pp. 28, 40

    ‘his bare torso lying directly on top…’ – Lawlor, p. 369

    ‘making a spear…’ – W.J. Peasley The last of the Nomads, (First published 1983), Eye Books 2004 pp. 79 -80
    Also in: Lawlor, (Chapter 17) pp. 300 – 312

    ‘Black fella medicine…’ – Havecker, pp. 83 – 94
    Marlo Morgan Mutant Message down under: a woman’s journey into Dreamtime Australia, Thorsons, 1994 (Chapter 13)

    ‘handfuls of dirt…’ –

    ‘Eugene ran…’ – based on accounts of ‘fast travelling’ in: A.P. Elkin. Aboriginal Men of High degree: initiation and sorcery in the world’s oldest tradition, (first published 1945). This edition, by Inner traditions International, 1994 pp. 57, 62-3, 70
    A note describes an Aboriginal called Billy Emu being ‘able to cover 112km a day, as fast as horsemen’.

    ‘not brumbies…’ – Whittington, p. 41

    ‘thirsty fellas wander into the bush…’ – description of a perish in: Kirwan, (Chapter 4)

    ‘unearthed a large frog…’ – I.A.E. Bayly Review of how indigenous people managed for water in desert regions. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia, 1999, 82: 17- 25

    ‘plenty gabba…’ – Whittington, p. 78


    ‘ochre hand stencils…’ – seen by author at Aboriginal cave site at Dunns Swamp – Ganguddy area, New South Wales.

    ‘‘into a high vaulted cave…’ – The Nullarbor is well known for its large caves. The caves at Cocklebiddy contain one of the world’s longest, known underwater passages. In: Edmunds

    ‘a Van Gogh painting…’ – Vincent Van Gogh. Sunflowers, (1888) Collection: National Gallery, London.
    This painting was on exhibit at Les XX in Brussels in 1890 (one of two sunflower paintings in that exhibition). In: Walter Feilchenfeldt. Vincent Van Gogh: the years in France. Complete paintings 1886-1890 (First published 2009) English edition by Philip Wilson Publishers, 2013, p. 128

    ‘dreaming…’ – Lawlor, pp. 263 – 275

    ‘one of the comets was much larger…’ –

    ‘an emu…’ – Aboriginal astronomy facts, in:

    ‘Before the white fellas came…’ – Eugene’s description about water scarcity is based on an aboriginal’s observations reported in the ‘Kalgoorlie Miner’, 16th December 1897. In: Whittington p. 221 (The Aboriginal’s name was Tickenbutt)

    ‘White fella love numbers…’ –

    ‘your brother okay…’ – Havecker, pp. 29 – 43, 59 – 70

    ‘and it goes very fast and you can see through it…’ – Havecker (based on an anecdote, from the foreword)

    ‘kungullen…’ – ibid pp. 29 – 43


    ‘someone was there…’ – based on a phenomenon experienced by people in acute danger: John Geiger The Third Man factor: surviving the impossible, Cannongate Books, 2009

    ‘a man called Talbot…’ – from: Kirwan, (Chapter 5)

    ‘the telegraphists from each state…’ – photograph from: Edmunds

    ‘piles of sandalwood…’ –

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